To remove the heat from the components closest to the plasma, the tokamak cooling water system will rely on over 36 kilometres of nuclear-grade piping and fittings as well as a large number supports, valves, pumps, heat exchangers and tanks—all integrated into the limited space of the Tokamak Complex. The final design review was held successfully held in November 2017 for the elements that need to be in place by First Plasma.
Tokamak Cooling Water System
The US is responsible for 100% of the design, engineering, and procurement of the Tokamak Cooling Water System (TCWS).
ITER’s fusion power will reach 500 MW during the deuterium-tritium inductive plasma operation with an energy input of only 50 MW, yielding an energy multiplication factor of 10. Heat will be transferred by the Tokamak Cooling Water System from client systems to the environment through the secondary cooling system. TCWS is designed to cool client systems, such as the first-wall/blanket, vacuum vessel, divertor, and neutral beam injector. Additional operations include baking of in-vessel components, chemical control of water provided to client systems, draining and drying for maintenance, and leak detection/localization.
Source: ITER Newsline
The I&C team has completed a number of design achievements in preparation of First Plasma deliveries, including: Ion Cyclotron Heating (RF Bldg.) I&C First Plasma Final Design Review (December 2017), Tokamak Cooling Water System I&C First Plasma Final Design Review (November 2017), Vacuum Auxiliary System (03) Conceptual Design Review (July 2017) and Roughing Pumps System I&C Conceptual Design Review (April 2017).
Building a Sun on Earth requires not only extensive heating systems but also large cooling systems for the removal of plasma heat from the tokamak. Fabrication of tokamak cooling water system piping is now underway at Schulz Xtruded Products in Robinsville and Hernando, Mississippi (US), with management oversight by the US Domestic Agency and the ITER Organization.
Source: ITER Newsline
US ITER is ramping up hardware deliveries to Europe. In January, the United-States delivered its first batch of production conductor for the super-conducting toroidal field magnet system; the US also completed delivery of the first highly exceptional load, a massive high voltage transformer for the steady state electrical system, to the ITER site. In March, the first components of the tokamak cooling water system, two large drain tanks, were shipped from Camden, N.J. for delivery to the ITER site.
Drain tank fabrication for ITER’s tokamak cooling water system is progressing steadily under the leadership of US ITER, which is managed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory for the U.S. Department of Energy. The drain tanks will be among first major hardware items shipped to the ITER site.
US ITER researchers at the University of Wisconsin and Oak Ridge National Laboratory are developing advanced processes to assess ITER’s unique tokamak components and materials in the presence of the tremendous amount of neutron flux and energy released by fusion reactions. The process, called neutronics analysis, involves a palette of complex computational codes and libraries for predicting neutron impacts.